Die Schwangerschaft der Epilepsiepatientin

Medikamentenauswahl, Diagnostik, Konsequenzen
Prof. Dr. med. Bernhard J. Steinhoff
Seiten 6-10

  1. Bengner M, Schmitz B. Frauen mit Epilepsie vor und während der Schwangerschaft. Z Epileptol 2013; 26:154-159.
  2. EURAP Study Group. Seizure control and treatment in pregnancy: observations from the EURAP epilepsy pregnancy registry. Neurology 2006; 66:354-360.
  3. Harden CL, Meador KJ, Penell PB et al. Practice parameter update: Management issues for women with epilepsy – focus on pregnancy (an evidence-based review): teratogenesis and perinatal aoutcomes. Report of the quality standards subcommittee and therapeutics and technology subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and American Epilepsy Society. Neurology 2009; 73:133-141.
  4. May TW, Pfäfflin M, Coban I, Schmitz B. Frauen mit Epilepsie: Befürchtungen, Wissen, Beratungsbedarf. Nervenarzt 2009; 80:174-183.
  5. Meador KJ, Pennell PB, Harden CL et al. Pregnancy registries in epilepsy: a consensus statement on health outcomes. Neurology 2008; 71:1109-1117.
  6. Meador KJ, Baker GA, Browning N, et al. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure and cognitive outcomes at age 6 years (NEAD study): a prospective observational study. Lancet Neurol 2013; 12:244-252.
  7. Sabers A, Buchholt JM, Uldall P, Hansen EL. Lamotrigine plasma levels reduced by oral contraceptives. Epilepsy Research 2001; 47:151-154.
  8. Sabers A. Algorithm for lamotrigine dose adjustment before, during, and after pregnancy. Acta Neurol Scand 2012; 126:e1-4
  9. Sabers A, Buchholt JM, Uldal, P, Hansen EL. Lamotrigine plasma levels reduced by oral contraceptives. Epilepsy Res 2001; 47:151-154.
  10. Shallcross R, Bromley R, Irwin, B, et al. Child development following in utero exposure: levetiracteam vs sodium valproate. Neurology 2011; 76:383-389.
  11. Senf P, Schmitz B. Epilepsie: Unsicherheit vermeiden. AP Neurologie Psychiatrie 2009:34-39.
  12. Steinhoff BJ. Der Epilepsiepatient in der Praxis. ComMed Verlagsagentur, Basel; 2005.
  13. Steinhoff BJ: Pregnancy, epilepsy and anticonvulsants. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2008; 10:63-75.
  14. Steinhoff BJ. Antikonvulsive Pharmakotherapie Jugendlicher und Erwachsener. State of the Art. Z Epileptol 2013; 26:142-153.
  15. Tomson T, Hiilesmaa V. Epilepsy in pregnancy. BMJ 2007; 335:769-773.
  16. Tomson T, Battino D, Bonizzoni E et al. Dose-dependent risk of malformations with antiepileptic drugs: an analysis of data from the EURAP epilepsy and pregnancy refistry. Lancet Neurol 2011; 10:609-617.

Kasuistik: Verhütung bei Endometriumhyperplasie

Welche Kontrazeption würden Sie empfehlen?
Prof. Dr. med. Thomas Römer
Seite 11

  1. Haimoivich S, Checa MA, Mancebo G, Fuste´ P, Carreras R: Treatment of endometrial hyperplasia without atypia in periand postmenopausal women with a levonorgestrel intrauterine device. Menopause 2008; 15:1002–1004.
  2. Römer T: Endometriumhyperplasie und -karzinom. Hormonale Therapieoptionen. Gynäkologische Endokrinologie 2013; 11:277-288.
  3. Varma R, Soneja H, Bhatia K, Ganesan R, Rollason T, Clark TJ, Gupta JK: The effectiveness of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNGIUS) in the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia – A long-term follow-up study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2008; 139:169–175.
  4. Whiteman MK, Zapata LB, Tepper NK, Marchbanks PA, Curtis KM: Use of contraceptive methods among women with endometrial hyperplasia: a systematic review. Contraception 2010; 82:56–63.

CME-Fortbildung: Tabakabhängigkeit & Schwangerschaft

Diagnostik, Risiken, Rauchentwöhnung

Dr. rer. biol. hum. Désirée Aichert und Dr. med. Tobias Rüther
Seiten 15-21

  1. Werler MM, Pober BR, Holmes LB. Smoking and pregnancy. Teratology 1985; 32:473-481.
  2. Pabst A, Piontek D, Kraus L, Müller S. Substanzkonsum und substanzbezogene Störungen - Ergebnisse des Epidemiologischen Suchtsurveys 2009. SUCHT 2010; 56:327-336.
  3. Röske K, Lingnau ML, Hannover W, et al. Prevalence of smoking in women before and during pregnancy: population-based data. Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift 2008; 133:764-768.
  4. Ebert LM, Fahy K. Why do women continue to smoke in pregnancy? Women and birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives 2007; 20:161-168.
  5. Cnattingius S, Lindmark G, Meirik O. Who continues to smoke while pregnant? Journal of epidemiology and community health 1992; 46:218-221.
  6. Baron R, Mannien J, de Jonge A et al. Socio-demographic and lifestyle-related characteristics associated with self-reported any, daily and occasional smoking during pregnancy. PloS one 2013; 8:e74197.
  7. Linares Scott TJ, Heil SH, Higgins ST, Badger GJ, Bernstein IM. Depressive symptoms predict smoking status among pregnant women. Addictive behaviors 2009; 34:705-708.
  8. Mullen PD. How can more smoking suspension during pregnancy become lifelong abstinence? Lessons learned about predictors, interventions, and gaps in our accumulated knowledge. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2004; 6 Suppl 2:217-238.
  9. CDCP. Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2002; Vol. 51:1-12.
  10. Webb DA, Boyd NR, Messina D, Windsor RA. The discrepancy between self-reported smoking status and urine continine levels among women enrolled in prenatal care at four publicly funded clinical sites. Journal of public health management and practice. JPHMP 2003; 9:322-325.
  11. Benowitz NL. Neurobiology of nicotine addiction: implications for smoking cessation treatment. The American journal of medicine 2008; 121:3-10.
  12. Hughes JR. Effects of abstinence from tobacco: valid symptoms and time course. Nicotine & tobacco research. Official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2007; 9:315-327.
  13. Kröger CB, Lohmann B. Tabakkonsum und Tabakabhängigkeit. Göttingen: Hogrefe; 2007.
  14. Fagerström KO, Schneider NG. Measuring nicotine dependence: a review of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. J Behav Med 1989; 12:159-182.
  15. Augood C, Duckitt K, Templeton AA. Smoking and female infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod 1998; 13:1532-1539.
  16. Hull MG, North K, Taylor H, Farrow A, Ford WC. Delayed conception and active and passive smoking. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood Study Team. Fertil Steril 2000; 74:725-733.
  17. Feichtinger W, Papalambrou K, Poehl M, Krischker U, Neumann K. Smoking and in vitro fertilization: a meta-analysis. J Assist Reprod Genet 1997; 14:596-599.
  18. Winter E, Wang J, Davies MJ, Norman R. Early pregnancy loss following assisted reproductive technology treatment. Hum Reprod 2002; 17:3220-3223.
  19. Baron JA, La Vecchia C, Levi F. The antiestrogenic effect of cigarette smoking in women. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 1990; 162:502-514.
  20. Adena MA, Gallagher HG. Cigarette smoking and the age at menopause. Ann Hum Biol 1982; 9:121-130.
  21. Sharma R, Biedenharn KR, Fedor JM, Agarwal A. Lifestyle factors and reproductive health: taking control of your fertility. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2013; 11:66.
  22. Chia SE, Lim ST, Tay SK. Factors associated with male infertility: a case-control study of 218 infertile and 240 fertile men. BJOG Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 2000; 107:55-61.
  23. Shabsigh R, Fishman IJ, Schum C, Dunn JK. Cigarette smoking and other vascular risk factors in vasculogenic impotence. Urology 1991; 38:227-331.
  24. Mannino DM, Klevens RM, Flanders WD. Cigarette smoking: an independent risk factor for impotence? Am J Epidemiol 1994; 140:1003-1008.
  25. Castles A, Adams EK, Melvin CL, Kelsch C, Boulton ML. Effects of smoking during pregnancy. Five meta-analyses. Am J Prev Med 1999; 16:208-215.
  26. Ananth CV, Smulian JC, Vintzileos AM. Incidence of placental abruption in relation to cigarette smoking and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Obstetrics and gynecology 1999; 93:622-628.
  27. Kyrklund-Blomberg NB, Gennser G, Cnattingius S. Placental abruption and perinatal death. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2001; 15:290-297.
  28. Simpson WJ. A preliminary report on cigarette smoking and the incidence of prematurity. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 1957; 73:807-815.
  29. Kramer MS. Intrauterine growth and gestational duration determinants. Pediatrics 1987; 80:502-511.
  30. Cnattingius S. The epidemiology of smoking during pregnancy: smoking prevalence, maternal characteristics, and pregnancy outcomes. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2004; 6 Suppl 2:125-140.
  31. Shah NR, Bracken MB. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies on the association between maternal cigarette smoking and preterm delivery. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 2000; 182:465-472.
  32. Kyrklund-Blomberg NB, Granath F, Cnattingius S. Maternal smoking and causes of very preterm birth. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica 2005; 84:572-577.
  33. Hackshaw A, Rodeck C, Boniface S. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and birth defects: a systematic review based on 173 687 malformed cases and 11.7 million controls. Hum Reprod Update 2011; 17:589-604.
  34. Mitchell EA, Milerad J. Smoking and the sudden infant death syndrome. Rev Environ Health 2006; 21:81-103.
  35. Wisborg K, Henriksen TB, Obel C, Skajaa E, Ostergaard JR. Smoking during pregnancy and hospitalization of the child. Pediatrics 1999; 104:e46.
  36. Harlap S, Davies AM. Infant admissions to hospital and maternal smoking. Lancet 1974; 1:529-532.
  37. Pattenden S, Antova T, Neuberger M, et al. Parental smoking and children's respiratory health: independent effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure. Tobacco control 2006; 15:294-301.
  38. Chen A, Pennell ML, Klebanoff MA, Rogan WJ, Longnecker MP. Maternal smoking during pregnancy in relation to child overweight: follow-up to age 8 years. International journal of epidemiology 2006; 35:121-130.
  39. Clifford A, Lang L, Chen R. Effects of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy on cognitive parameters of children and young adults: a literature review. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2012; 34:560-570.
  40. Cornelius MD, Leech SL, Goldschmidt L, Day NL. Prenatal tobacco exposure: is it a risk factor for early tobacco experimentation? Nicotine & tobacco research. Official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2000; 2:45-52.
  41. Fergusson DM, Woodward LJ, Horwood LJ. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and psychiatric adjustment in late adolescence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998; 55:721-727.
  42. Froehlich TE, Lanphear BP, Auinger P, et al. Association of tobacco and lead exposures with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 2009; 124:e1054-1063.
  43. Ball SW, Gilman SE, Mick E, et al. Revisiting the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ADHD. J Psychiatr Res 2010; 44:1058-1062.
  44. Knopik VS. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and child outcomes: real or spurious effect? Dev Neuropsychol 2009; 34:1-36.
  45. Manuel J. Double exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke. Environ Health Perspect 1999; 107:A196-201.
  46. Lindbohm ML, Sallmen M, Taskinen H. Effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on reproductive health. Scand J Work Environ Health 2002; 28 Suppl 2:84-96.
  47. Windham GC, Eaton A, Hopkins B. Evidence for an association between environmental tobacco smoke exposure and birthweight: a meta-analysis and new data. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 1999; 13:35-57.
  48. McBride CM, Emmons KM, Lipkus IM. Understanding the potential of teachable moments: the case of smoking cessation. Health Educ Res 2003; 18:156-170.
  49. Röske K, Hannöver W, Thyrian JR, John U, Hannich H-J. Welchen Umgang mit dem Thema Rauchen wünschen sich schwangere Frauen in der medizinischen Versorgung? Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 2007; 67:974-977.
  50. Stead LF, Buitrago D, Preciado N, Sanchez G, Hartmann-Boyce J, Lancaster T. Physician advice for smoking cessation. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 2013; 5:CD000165.
  51. Fiore MC, Jaén CR, Baker TB, et al. Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service; 2008.
  52. Lumley J, Chamberlain C, Dowswell T, Oliver S, Oakley L, Watson L. Interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 2009: CD001055.
  53. Kröger CB, Piontek D. Gesundheitsförderung konkret: Tabakentwöhnung in Deutschland. Köln: Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung; 2011.
  54. Miller WR, Rollnick S. Motivierende Gesprächsführung; 2009.
  55. Lai DT, Cahill K, Qin Y, Tang JL. Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 2010: CD006936.
  56. Batra A. Therapie der Tabakabhängigkeit. Deutsches Ärzteblatt 2011;108:555-64.
  57. Rasenack R, Jähne A. Tabakkonsum und Tabakentwöhnung in der Schwangerschaft. Sucht 2010; 56:183–196.
  58. Oncken CA, Kranzler HR. What do we know about the role of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation before or during pregnancy? Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2009; 11:1265-1273.
  59. Stead LF, Perera R, Bullen C, Mant D, Lancaster T. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 2008: CD000146.
  60. Moore D, Aveyard P, Connock M, Wang D, Fry-Smith A, Barton P. Effectiveness and safety of nicotine replacement therapy assisted reduction to stop smoking: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2009; 338:b1024.
  61. Oncken C, Campbell W, Chan G, Hatsukami D, Kranzler HR. Effects of nicotine patch or nasal spray on nicotine and cotinine concentrations in pregnant smokers. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2009; 22:751-758.
  62. Coleman T, Chamberlain C, Cooper S, Leonardi-Bee J. Efficacy and safety of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation in pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis. Addiction 2011; 106:52-61.
  63. Dempsey DA, Benowitz NL. Risks and benefits of nicotine to aid smoking cessation in pregnancy. Drug Saf 2001; 24:277-322.

Postnatal nicht eindeutiges Genitale

Hintergründe zur Neuregelung des Personenstandsgesetzes bei Intersexualität
Prof. Dr. phil. Hertha Richter-Appelt
Seiten 23 bis 28

  1. Schweizer K, Richter-Appelt H (Eds.). Intersexualität kontrovers: Grundlagen, Erfahrungen, Positionen. Psychosozial Verlag, Gießen; 2012.
  2. Deutscher Ethikrat (Hrsg). Intersexualität – Stellungnahme vom 23. Februar 2012. ISBN 978-3-941957-27-5, Berlin; 2012. Anschrift: Herausgegeben vom Deutschen Ethikrat, Jägerstraße 22/23, 10117 Berlin; Tel.: 030/20 37 02 42, Fax: 030/20 37 02 52, E-Mail: kontakt@ethikrat.org, Internet: www.ethikrat.org
  3. Hughes IA, Houk C, Ahmed SF, Lee PA, LWPES/ESPE Consensus Group. Consensus statement on management of intersex disorders. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2006; 91(7):554-563.

Therapie von Vulvovaginalmykosen im Wandel der Zeit (Teil 2)

Behandlungsprinzipien in der Antimykotikatherapie
von Prof. Dr. med. Werner Mendling, Dr. rer. nat. Ingo Stock und
Dr. rer. nat. Norbert Becker
Seiten 34-40

  1. Ács N, Bánhidy F, Puhó E, Czeizel AE. Teratogenic effects of vaginal boric acid treatment during pregnancy. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2006; 93:55-6.
  2. Al-Hedaithy SS. Spectrum and proteinase production of yeasts causing vaginitis in Saudi Arabian women. Med Sci Monit 2002; 8:CR498-501.
  3. Angotti LB, Lambert LC, Soper DE. Vaginitis: making sense of over-the-counter treatment options. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2007; 2007:97424.
  4. Arechavala AL, Bianchi MH, Robles AM, Santioso G et al. Identificación y sensibilidad frente a fluconazol y albaconazol de 100 cepas de levaduras aisladas de flujo vaginal. Rev Iberoam Microbiol 2007; 24:305–8.
  5. Bernhardt H. Candida im Ökosystem des Orogenitaltraktes. Mycoses 1996; 39(Suppl 1):44–47.
  6. Braga PC. Sasso MD, Culici M, Alfieri M. Eugenol and thymol, alone or in combination, induce morphological alterations in the envelope of Candida albicans. Fitoterapia 2007; 78: 396-400.
  7. Büchel KH, Draber W, Regel E, Plempel M. Synthesis and properties of clotrimazole and other antimycotic 1-triphenylmethyl imidazoles. Arzneimittelforschung 1972; 22:1260–72.
  8. Carson CF, Hammer KA, Riley TV. Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil: a review of antimicrobial and other medicinal properties. Clin Microbiol Rev 2006;19: 50–62.
  9. Cavallito CJ, Bailey JH. Allicin, the antibacterial principle of Allium sativum. I. Isolation, physical properties and antibacterial action. J Am Chem Soc 1944; 66:1950-1951.
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010. MMWR 2010; 59/No. RR-12: 61-63.
  11. Cohen L. Is more than one application of an antifungal necessary in the treatment of an acute vaginal candidosis? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985; 152:961–964.
  12. Colpe J. Hefezellen als Krankheitserreger im weiblichen Genitalcanal. Archiv Gynäkologie 1894; 47:638–645.
  13. Coudeyras  S, Jugie G, Vermerie M, Forestier C. Adhesion of human probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus to cervical and vaginal cells and interaction with vaginosis-associated pathogens. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2008, Article ID 549640.
  14. Czaika V, Tietz HJ, Schmalreck A, Sterry W et al. Resistenzbestimmungen bei Erregern chronisch rezidivierender Vaginalkandidosen als Voraussetzung für eine effektive Therapie. Mycoses 2000; 43(Suppl 2):45–50.
  15. Das Neves J, Pinto E, Teixeira B, Dias G et al. Local treatment of vulvovaginal candidosis. Drugs 2008; 68:1787–1802.
  16. De Seta F, Schmidt M, Vu B, Essmann M et al. Antifungal mechanisms supporting boric acid therapy of Candida vaginitis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2009; 63:325–336.
  17. Deutsche Homöopathische Union. Homöopathisches Repetitorium. DHU Karlsruhe, 1993.
  18. Donders GG; Bellen G, Mendling W. Management of recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis as a chronic illness. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2010; 70:306–321.
  19. Drouhet E. Traitement des infections mycosiques a “Candida albicans” par un nouvel antibiotique antifongique: la nystatine. Presse Med (Paris) 1955;620.
  20. Elliot KA. Managing patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Nurse Pract 1998; 23:43-44.
  21. Faber HC, Clark EB. Prevention and treatment of thrush (oidial stomatitis). Am J Dis Child 1927; 34:408–417.
  22. Fail PA, Chapin RE, Price CJ, Heindel JJ. General, reproductive, developmental and endocrine toxicity of boronated compounds. Repord Toxicol 1998; 12:1–18.
  23. Falagas ME, Betsi GI, Athanasiou S. Probiotics for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: a review. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006; 58:266–272.
  24. Ferris DG, Nyirjesy P, Sobel JD, Soper D et al. Over-the counter antifungal drug misuse associated with patient diagnosed vulvovaginal candidosis. Obstet Gynecol 2002; 99: 419-425.
  25. Fischer J. Soor des weiblichen Genitales. Wien Med Wochenschr 1897;15.
  26. Foxman B, Muraglia R, Dietz JP, Sobel JD et al. Prevalence of recurrent vulvovaginal candididiasis in 5 European countries and the US: results from an Internet Panel Survey.      Low Genit Tract Dis 2012; 17:1-6.
  27. Friese K, Neumann G, Siebert J. Topical antiseptics as an alternative in the treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidosis. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2003; 268:194–197.
  28. García Figueroa RG, Sauceda L, Ramírez Palacios D, Cruz Talonia F et al. Effectiveness and safety of ciclopiroxolamine 1 % vaginal cream versus terconazole 0,8 % vaginal cream in the treatment of genital candidiasis. Ginecol Obstet Mex 2000; 68:154–159.
  29. Giannoni M, Pollastro M, Jacobellis M. A clinical study of cyclopyroxolamine versus clotrimazole in the treatment of mycotic vulvovaginitis. Minerva Med 1990; 81:555–559.
  30. Gigli L. Azione in vitro di alcune sostanze coloranti verso la Candida. Arch Ital Dermatol 1955; 27:208.
  31. Giron LM, Aguilar GA, Caceres A, Arroyo GL. Anticandidal activity of plants used for the treatment of vaginitis in Guatemala and clinical trial of Solanum nigrescens preparation. J Ethnopharmacol 1988; 22:307-313.
  32. Giulini P. Soor der Vulva. Zentralbl Gynäk 1891; 52:1049–1050.
  33. Gold W, Stout HA, Pagano JF, Donovick R. Amphotericins A and B, antifungal antibiotics produced by a streptomycete. Antibiot Ann 1955/56:579–586.
  34. Gomes-de-Elvas AR, Palmeira-de-Oliveira A, Gaspar C, Gouveia P et al. In vitro assessment of gentian violet anti-Candida activity. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2012; 74:120–124.
  35. Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV. Antifungal activity of the components of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil. J Appl Microbiol 2003; 95:853–860.
  36. Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. J Appl Microbiol 1999; 86:985–990.
  37. Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV. In-vitro activity of essential oils, in particular Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and tea tree oil products, against Candida spp. J Antimicrob Chemother 1998; 42:591–595.
  38. Haussmann D. Die Parasiten der weiblichen Geschlechtsorgane des Menschen und einiger Thiere. Nebst einem Beitrage zur Entstehung des Oidium albicans Rob. Berlin: Hirschwald 1870.
  39. Hazen EL, Brown L. Two antifungal agents produced by a soil actinomycete. Science 1950; 112:423.
  40. Heinonen OP, Slone D, Shapiro S. Birth defects and drugs in Pregnancy. Littleton, Mass: Publishing Sciences Group Inc.; 1977.
  41. Hemmerich F. Kompendium für die frauenheilkundliche Praxis. Filderstadt: Weleda, 1999.
  42. Herrera-Arellano A, Jiménez-Ferrer E, Zamilpa A, Martínez-Rivera et al. Exploratory study on the clinical and mycological effectiveness of a herbal medicinal product from Solanum chrysotrichum in patients with Candida yeast-associated vaginal infection. Planta Med 2009; 75:466–471.
  43. Hirsch HA, Szalmay G, Dedes M. Internationaler Chemotherapie Kongress, Prag, August 1971. 
  44. Hoehne O. Die Behandlung der Trichomonas-Kolpitis. Zentralbl Gynäkol 1916; 40:113–138.
  45. Jerchel D, Fischer H, Kracht M. Zur Darstellung der Benzimidazole. Liebigs Ann Chem 1952; 575:162–173.
  46. Jue SG, Dawson GW, Brogden RN. Ciclopiroxolamine 1% cream. A preliminary review of its antimicrobial activity and therapeutic use. Drugs 1985; 29:330–341.
  47. Kehrer E. Die Vulva und ihre Erkrankungen. In: Stoeckel W (Hrsg.), Handbuch der Gynäkologie. 3. Auflage München: Bergmann; 1930, 5. Band:215–226.
  48. Kern AM, Bohbot JM, Cardot JM. Tratement préventif de la candidose vulvovaginale récidivante par probiotique vaginal: résultats de l’étude observationelle Candiflore. La Lettre du Gynécolgigue 2012; 370:34-37.
  49. Kim SH, Lee LS, Bae SM, Han SJ et al. Antimicrobial and antifungal effects of a green tea extract against vaginal pathogens. J Wom Med 2008; 1:27–36.
  50. Kimmig J. Neuzeitliche Behandlung der Dermatomykosen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Mikrosporie. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1950; 28:429–431.
  51. Kimmig J, Rieth H. Die Behandlung von Dermatophyten mit neuen pilzabtötenden verbindungen. Arch Dermatol Syph (Berl) 1949; 189:265.
  52. Kiss H, Witt A, Petricevic L, Maria Riedl A. Die orale Kurzzeittherapie der vulvovaginalen Pilzinfektion als ein patientenorientiertes Therapiekonzept. Geburtsh Frauenheilk 2001; 61:133–137.
  53. Lang WR, Stelle JG, Benchacan V. Nystatin vaginal tablets in treatment of candidal vulvovaginitis. Obst Gynecol 1956; 8:364–367.
  54. Langsadl L, Jedlichkova Z. Sensitivity of strains of Candida albicans to jaritin, haloprogin, clotrimazole and miconazole. Postgrad Med J 1979; 55:695-696. 
  55. Lansdorp D, Bressers HP, Dekens-Konter JA, Meyboom RH. Potentiation of acenocoumarol during vaginal administration of miconazole. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 47:225–226.
  56. Legal HP. Ergebnisse der Behandlung von Trichomonas- und Candida-Infektionen der Vagina mit Canesten-Vaginaltabletten. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilk 1973; 33:53–57.
  57. Littauer A. Die auf der Genitalschleimhaut der Frauen vorkommenden Pilze und ihre pathologische Bedeutung. Zentralbl Gynäkol 1905; 27:871.
  58. Littauer A. Zur Therapie des Pruritus vulvae mit besonderer Berücksichtigung von Soor und Trichomonaden. Zentralbl Gynäkol 1923; 47:23.
  59. Lynch ME, Sobel JD. Comparative in vitro activity of antimycotic agents against pathogenic vaginal yeast isolates. J Med Vet Mycol 1994; 32:267–274.
  60. Martinez RCR, Franceschini SA, Patta MC, Quintana SM et al. Improved treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with fluconazole plus probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14. Letters Applied Microbiol 2009; 48:269–274.
  61. Masterton G, Henderson JN, Napier IR. Vaginal candidoses. Br Med J 1976; 1:712.
  62. Mendling W. Azoles in the therapy of vulvovaginal candidosis. In: Berg D, Plempel M (Hrsg.). Sterol biosynthesis Inhibitors. Ellis Horwood Chichester 1988:480–506.
  63. Mendling W. Vaginose, Vaginitis, Zervizitis und Salpingitis. Springer Medizin Verlag Heidelberg 2006.
  64. Mendling W, Brasch J, German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics, the Working Group for Infections and Infectimmunology in Gynecology and Obstetrics et al. Guideline vulvovaginal candidosis (2010) of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics, the Working Group for Infections and Infectimmunology in Gynecology and Obstetrics, the German Society of Dermatology, the Board of German Dermatologists and the German Speaking Mycological Society. Mycoses 2012; 55(Suppl 3):1–13.
  65. Mendling W, Janssen K. Drei Tage gegen die Vulvovaginalcandidose. Mangelnde Compliance erfordert kürzere Therapiemöglichkeiten. Sexualmed 1981; 12: 471–473.
  66. Mendling W, Plempel M. Vaginal secretion levels after 6 days, 3 days and 1 day of treatment with 100, 200 and 500 mg vaginal tablets of clotrimazole and the therapeutic efficacy. Chemother 1982; 28(Suppl 1):43–47.
  67. Mendling W, Seebacher C und die Expertengruppe der Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Infektionen und Infektionsimmunologie in der Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe, Deutschsprachigen Mykologischen Gesellschaft e. V., der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft und des Berufsverbandes der Deutschen Dermatologen: Leitlinie Vulvovaginalkandidose. AWMF 013/004; 2006 (www.dggg.de).
  68. Merkus JM. Treatment of vaginal candidiasis: orally or vaginally? J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;  23:568–572.
  69. Moench LM. Thrush of the cervix uteri. Med Clinics of North America 1929, Philadelphia: Saunders 6, 1581–1583.
  70. Mondello F, De Bernardis F, Girolamo A, Salvatore G et al. In vitro and in vivo activity of tea tree oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic yeasts. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003; 51:1223–1229.
  71. Moore GS, Atkins RD. The fungicidal and fungistatic properties of an aqueous garlic extract on the medically important yeast-like fungi. Mycologia 1977; 69:341–348.
  72. Nappi RE, Liekens G, Brandenburg U. Attitudes, perceptions and knowledge about the vagina: the International Vagina Dialogue Survey. Contraception 2006; 73:493–500.
  73. Nurbhai M, Grimshaw J, Watson M, Bond C et al. Oral versus intra-vaginal imidazole and triazole anti-fungal treatment of uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush). Cochrane Database Syst Med 2007;17:4:CD002845.
  74. Oberste-Lehn H, Baggesen I, Plempel M. First clinical experience with a new oral antimycotic agent in systemic mycosis. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1969; 94:1356–1364.
  75. Otero L, Fleites A, Méndez FJ, Palacio V et al. Susceptibility of Candida species isolated from female prostitutes with vulvovaginitis to antifungal agents and boric acid. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1999; 18:59–61.
  76. Patt V, Niesen M, Korte W. Vaginalmykosen in der Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe. Gynäkologie 1972:217–8.
  77. Paulitsch A, Weger W, Ginter-Hanselmyer G, Marth E et al. A 5-year (2000-2004) epidemiological survey of Candida yeast species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis in Graz, Austria. Mycoses 2006; 49:471–475.
  78. Phillips AJ. Treatment of non-albicans Candida vaginitis with amphotericin B vaginal suppositories. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 192:2009–2013.
  79. Pickhardt W, Breen JV. Gentian violet in vaginal mycoses. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1948; 74:42–46.
  80. Pina-Vaz C, Gonçalves Rodrigues AG, Pinto E, Costa-de-Oliveira S et al. Antifungal activity of Thymus oils and their major compounds. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2004; 18:73–8.
  81. Pirotta M, Gunn J, Chondros P, Grover S et al. Effect of Lactobacillus in preventing post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2004; 329:548.
  82. Pizzimenti F, Tulino G, Marino A. Antimicrobial and antifungal activity of bergamot oil. In Program and Abstracts of the International Congress Bergamotto 98. Stato dell´arte, Reggio Calabria, Italy, 1998. Abstract Nr. 38. Laruffa, Kalabrien, Italien.
  83. Plass ED, Hesseltine HC, Borts IC. Monilia vulvovaginitis. Am J Obest Gynecol 1931; 21:320-334.
  84. Plempel M. Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur antimykotischen Wirkung von Clotrimazol in vitro und in vivo. Arzneimittel-Forschung 1972; 22:1280–1289.
  85. Plempel M, Bartmann K, Büchel KH, Regel E. Experimentelle Befunde über ein neues, oral wirksames Antimykotikum mit breitem Wirkungsspektrum. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1969; 94:1356–1367.
  86. Raab W, Windisch J. In-vitro-Untersuchungen zur Anwendbarkeit von 1-p-Chlorbenzyl-2-methylbenzimidazol in der Mykosebehandlung. Arch Dermatol Res 1971; 240:365–374.
  87. Richter SS, Galask RP, Messer SA. Hollis RJ et al. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species causing vulvovaginitis and epidemiology of recurrent cases. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43:2155–2162.
  88. Rieth H. Anti-Pilz-Diät. GIT-Supplement 1985; 38:6.
  89. Rieth H, Schönfeld JH. Untersuchungen über die sproßpilzhemmende Wirkung. Hautarzt 1954; 3:120.
  90. Rivera-Sánchez R, Flores-Paz R, Arriaga-Alba M. Identificación de especies de Candida causantes de vaginitis en la población mexicana. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2006; 24:634–636.
  91. Rodriguez-Noriega A, Palacio-Hernanz S, Sanz-Sanz F, Reyes S et al. Double-blind investigation of R-42470 (terconazole cream 0,4%) and clotrimazole (cream 1%) for the topical treatment of mycotic vaginitis. 13. Int Congr Chemother, Wien, August/September 1983, Part 61:28–30.
  92. Romano L, Battaglia F, Masucci L, Sanguinetti M et al. In vitro activity of bergamot natural essence and furocoumarin-free and distilled extracts, and their associations with boric acid, against clinical yeast isolates. J Antimicrob Chemother 2005; 55:110–114.
  93. Rüther E, Rieth H, Koch H. Die Bedeutung der Candida-Mykosen (Moniliasis) für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilk 1958; 18:22–35.
  94. Rrüt GS, Kcots IF, Juist SF, Latarrew HB et al. Topical treatment options of mycotic vaginitis. 13. Int Congr Chemother, Wien, August/September 1983, Part 61:S11.
  95. Sarewitz AB. Treatment of genitourinary moniliasis with orally administered nystatin. Ann Intern Med 1955; 42:1187.
  96. Schaller M. In vitro antibacterial activity of different clotrimazole formulations. Chemotherapy 1982; 28(Suppl 1):32–36.
  97. Schaller M. Lactobacilli in mucosal Candida albicans infections. In: Human Microbiota in Health and Disease. SelfCare 2012; 3(Suppl 1):41–45.
  98. Shadomy S. In vitro antifungal activity of clotrimazole (BAY b 5097). Infect Immun 1971; 4:143–148.
  99. Simonart T, Kabagabo C, De Maertelaer V. Homoeopathic remedies in dermatology: a systematic review of controlled clinical trials. Brit Assoc Dermatol 2011; 165:897–905.
  100. Sobel JD. Management of patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Drugs 2003; 63:1059–1066.
  101. Sobel JD. Management of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: unresolved issues. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2006; 8:481–486.
  102. Sobel JD. Use of antifungal drugs in pregnancy: a focus on safety. Drug Saf 2000; 23:77–85.
  103. Sobel JD. Vulvovaginal candidosis. Lancet 2007; 369:1961–1971.
  104. Sobel JD, Chaim W, Nagappan V, Leaman D. Treatment of vaginitis caused by Candida glabrata: use of topical boric acid and flucytosine. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 189:1297–1300.
  105. Spitzbart H. Experimentelle und klinische Untersuchungen über die Anwendung von Moronal bei gynäkologischen Erkrankungen. Med Klein 1960;31:1357.
  106. Stille W, Brodt H-R, Groll AH, Just-Nübling G. Antibiotika-Therapie. Klinik und Praxis der antiinfektiösen Behandlung. Schattauer Verlag, Stuttgart, 2005.
  107. Stock I. Pilzerkrankungen der Vulva und Vagina durch Candida-Arten. Erreger, Krankheitsbilder und Behandlungsoptionen. Med Monatsschr Pharm 2010; 33:324–333.
  108. Tanner F, Bolas GD. Action of several disinfectants on yeasts. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1928: 26:154.
  109. Theroux R. Factors influencing women´s decisions to self-treat vaginal symptoms. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 2005; 17:156–162.
  110. Thirion DJ, Zanetti LA. Potentiation of warfarin´s hypoprothrombinemic effect with miconazole vaginal suppositories. Pharmacotherapy 2000; 20:98–99.
  111. Thomas HH. Candidal vulvovaginitis. Treatment with mycostatin. Obstet Gynecol 1957; 9:163.
  112. Tietz H-J. Therapieproblem chronisch rezidivierende Vaginalmykose. Ther Umschau 2002; 59:481-484.
  113. Tietz H-J, Becker N-H. Behandlung akuter Vaginalmykosen mit Clotrimazol: Vergleich der topischen Ein- und Dreitagekombinationstherapie. Gyne 2011; 11:12–15.
  114. Vale-Silva LA, Gonçalves MJ, Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L et al. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus x viciosoi against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species. Planta Med 2010; 76:882–888.
  115. Van Kessel K, Assefi N, Marrazzo J, Eckert L. Common complementary and alternative therapies for yeast vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003; 58:351–358.
  116. Vecchiarelli A, Pericolini E, Gabrielli E, Pietrella D. New approaches in the development of a vaccine for mucosal candidiasis: progress and challenges. Front Microbiol 2012; 3:294. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2012.00294.
  117. Von Herff O. Über Scheidenmykosen. Slg Klein Vortr 137, Gynaekol 52, Leipzig: Breitkopf  Hertel, 1894.
  118. Von Winckel F. Über die Bedeutung pflanzlicher Parasiten der Scheide bei Schwangeren. Berl Klin Wochenschr 1896; 3:237–239.
  119. Wajnberg M, Wajnberg A. Doppelblind-Vergleichsstudie mit Ciclopyroxolamin- und Miconazol-Vaginalcreme bei vulvovaginaler Kandidose. Mykosen 1981; 24:721–730.
  120. Walker PP, Reynolds MT, Ashbee HR, Brown C et al. Vaginal yeasts in the era of ”over the counter” antifungals. Sex Transm Inf 2000; 76:437–438.
  121. Waters EG, Wagner HP. Vaginal mycosis in pregnancy: an improved gentian violet treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1956; 60:885–887.
  122. Watson C, Calabretto H. Comprehensive review of conventional and non-conventional methods of management of recurrent vulvovagonal candidiasis. Aust N Z J Obst Gyn 2007; 47:262–272.
  123. Wehrspann P. Die In-vitro-Empfindlichkeit der wichtigsten Sproßpilze gegen BAY b 5097. Mycoses 1971; 14:525–529.
  124. White DJ, Johnson EM, Warnock DW. Management of persistent vulvo vaginal candidosis due to azole-resistant Candida glabrata. Genitourin Med 1993; 69:112–114.
  125. Wichtl M. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. 3. Auflage. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press 2004.
  126. Wilkinson JS. Some remarks upon the development of epiphytes with the description of new vegetable formation found in connexion with the human uterus. Lancet 1849; 2:448.
  127. Wilson C. Recurrent vulvovaginitis candidiasis: an overview of traditional and alternative therapies. Adv Nurse Pract 2005; 13:24–29.
  128. Windorfer A. Case report on the syndrome of moniliasis, hypoparathyreoidism and Addison´s disease. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 1969; 18:103–105.
  129. Winner HI, Hurley R. Candida albicans. London, Curchill; 1964.
  130. Witt A, Kaufmann U, Bitschnau M, Tempfer C et al. Monthly itraconazole versus classic homeopathy for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: a randomized trial. BJOG 2009; 116:1499–1505.
  131. Wooley DW. Some biological effects produced by benzimidazole and their reversal by purines. J Biol Chem 1944; 152:225–232.
  132. Young GL, Jewell D. Topical treatment for vaginal candidiasis (trush) in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;4:CD000225.